Being one of the most diligent sources of revenue for the Indian economy, foreign direct investment (FDI) is gaining importance with each passing day. Investments made by any individual or firm in one country into business streams situated in a foreign country are termed as FDI. Generally, FDI takes place when the following conditions are satisfied by an investor:
- Establishing foreign business operations
- Acquiring foreign business assets
- Establishing ownership
- Controlling interest in a foreign company
With the purpose of fortifying the investor’s and stakeholder’s sentiments in the Indian e-commerce sector, refined policy is introduced to ensure that online and … Read more
With a view of improving the Indian economy and increasing the entrepreneurial drive, Indian Government under PM Narendra Modi’s leadership launched Start-up India Initiative in January 2016. The Action Plan shepherd by Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) is aimed at making start-up registration process more seamless and easing way for new entrepreneurs.
Start-up India Action Plan
Start-up India Action Plan benefits are three-fold:
- Simplification: First key benefit is expediting the start-up registration process. The idea is to improve compliance regime support, provide a hub for start-ups in India, registration and access through mobile app / portal, legal support
… Read more
Financial statements of a company are necessarily required to be filed with Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) annually. The form for filing such financial statements with MCA is AOC – 4. All the companies fall under this category and are compulsorily required to file form AOC – 4. However, few Companies are covered under Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) and are required to upload the financial statements on MCA portal in XBRL format as per the Companies (Filing of documents & Forms in Extensible Business Reporting Language) Rules, 2015. In this case the requirement of signing under hand is not … Read more
E-commerce generally refers to commercial transactions like buying, selling, leasing, hiring, etc., conducted electronically over the internet. At a very early stage, people were hesitant of transacting online but with the changing trend, advanced security services and movement of entire economy towards a paperless society, e-commerce is widely supported and practiced by a fair size of population.
The policies concerning FDI in e-commerce have evolved quickly in the last few years and the government has been constantly refining the relevant provisions. Some ambiguities still haunt people, either by deliberate design or otherwise, and it is believed that these complexities will … Read more
Since the introduction of Goods and Services Tax (GST), early-day jitters have given way to general acceptance that this may not be the most perfect single tax system, but with each passing day the alterations and modifications introduced in GST regime has made it feasible to be accepted with open arms by the people. However, understanding the diversified provisions inculcated in this Act can be challenging for some. Two such provisions are explained in detail as follows:
Place of Supply (PoS)
A comprehensive, destination based tax, GST was introduced as an indirect tax on the supply of goods or services … Read more
Goods and Services Tax (GST) has proved to have its own pros and cons. Since its introduction it has left ambiguity in the minds of people as to how one should file the returns, what transactions need to be recorded, what all comes under the purview of GST, how much GST rate needs to be charged on what products and who all are required to get their financials audited, etc.
To obliterate uncertainty regarding GST audit, the following procedure should be followed:
- Filing of annual return: The annual return is an aggregation operation whereas the audit is reconciliation between
… Read more
Developed by XBRL International Inc. (XII), XBRL is defined in Rule 2 of Companies (Filing of documents and forms in XBRL) Rules, 2015 as a standardized language for communication in electronic form to express, report or file financial information by the companies under the Act. It is a language for communicating electronically, financial and business data for business reporting. It has facilitated the process of creating, transmitting, using or analyzing such information.
Companies filing financial statements in AOC-4
With reference to Companies (Filing of documents and forms in XBRL) Rules, 2015 following companies are required to file their financial statements … Read more
What is GST Audit?
Audit means the critical examination of returns, records and other documents maintained and furnished by the registered person under CGST Act or the rules made thereunder or under any other law for the time being in force. It is also executed to verify the authenticity of turnover declared, refund claimed, taxes paid, and input tax credit availed, and to affirm compliance with the provisions of this Act or the rules made thereunder.
What are the rules of compliance for GST Audit?
GST audit is requisite for registered taxpayers with an aggregate annual turnover exceeding INR 2 … Read more
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) for a developing country like India is a major avenue of forex influx in the economy. It not only boosts the market performance but also provides a sense of security in case of unforeseeable events.
FDI in retail sector in India was restricted initially, but the dire need for forex lead to government liberalizing the policies of making investment upto 51% by way of FDI in ‘single brand’ retail sector and upto 49% equity participation in ‘multi brand’ retail sector, which further escalated steadily in retail sector.
Defining Retail Sector
Retail Sector is inclusive of small, … Read more
When a company procures its own outstanding shares i.e. quantum of stock in the open market along with shares held by institutional investors and restricted shares held by insiders and company officers, to reduce the number of shares available for General Public.
Reasons for buy back
Buy back of shares is undertaken for numerous reasons, like to strengthen the value of remaining shares available by cutting the supply or preventing other stakeholders from taking a controlling share. Few reasons for companies buying back their shares are discussed as follows:
- Preserving stock price: Company operates with the intention of
… Read more
Investment required to start a business
“The Entrepreneur always searches for change, responds to it and exploits it as an opportunity!”
Quoted above is not only a saying but a true exhibit of how a man aspiring to establish his own business should retaliate to the dynamic environment we live in. As risk and reward go hand-in-hand, it is crucial for an entrepreneur to estimate the cost involved and income generated for any new business, whether you’re a fast moving start up or still weighing the pros and cons of whether or not to set up a new venture.
Though, … Read more
What is Income Tax?
A tax imposed on taxable income or profits of persons (whether individual, firm, company, Artificial Juridical Person, Association of Persons, Body of Individuals or Local Authority). Taxation rates may vary by type or characteristics of tax payers.
Tax trend followed in India:
In India, two types of tax trends are followed:
- Progressive Rates: When the tax rate increases as the taxable income increases.
- Proportional Rates: When the tax rates are uniform, irrespective of the person or their incomes.
Income tax in itself is a vast concept and cannot be understood in entirety by a layman, so … Read more
Non Resident Indians (“NRI”) are often faced with the situation of maintaining an Indian rupee account. Primarily, there can be two reasons for opening such account: NRI wants to repatriate overseas earned money and / or NRI wants to keep India based earnings in India such as rent, dividend income, etc. There are two options available with NRI interested in opening bank account in India – Non Resident Rupee Account (“NRE”) or Non Resident Ordinary Rupee account (“NRO”).
Similarities between NRE and NRO accounts:
Both accounts can be opened as savings, fixed or recurring deposit account, current accounts. One needs … Read more
What is value of currency for an economy?
An economy is often represented by the people who live there and the value its currency has, further the value of a currency depends on factors that affect the economy like imports and exports, performance of equity markets, foreign exchange reserves, macroeconomic policies, inflation, employment, interest rates, growth rate, trade deficit, foreign investment inflows, banking capital, commodity prices and geopolitical conditions. Currencies are often influenced by income levels through consumer splurge. When income increases, people tend to expend more. Demand for imported goods increases demand for foreign currencies, thus, weakening the local … Read more
Foreign businesses often channelize their funds to reap the benefits of fast growing economy, cheap labor and wide scope of earning increased returns in India. To capture and relish such benefits, FDIs are superintended towards India in huge proportions by different countries around the world.
What is FDI?
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is generally termed as an investment made by a firm or individual in one country into business interests located in another country. Generally, FDI takes place when an investor establishes foreign business operations or acquires foreign business assets, including establishing ownership or controlling interest in a foreign company.… Read more
To determine the residential status of foreign companies, the Finance Act 2015 introduced the concept of place of effective management (POEM). By definition in Indian Tax Laws “Place of effective management” means a place where key management and commercial decisions that are necessary for the conduct of the business of an entity as a whole are, in substance, made.
The Finance Act, 2016 has changed the effectivity of the said amendment to section 6(3) of the Act. These amended provisions came into effect from 1st April 2017 and are now applicable for Assessment Year 2017-18 and subsequent assessment years.… Read more
Over the past few years, the number of transfer pricing audits has been increased and aggressive positions have been adopted by the Indian Revenue Authority, which has contributed to long drawn and protracted litigation. The Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) signed nine unilateral advance pricing agreements (APAs) with Indian taxpayers in July, this year, as it looks to reduce litigation by providing certainty in transfer pricing.
The APA program is designed to avoid the conflict arising in an audit and to nurture more effective communication between taxpayers and the Indian Revenue Authority, by helping both the parties to focus … Read more
Section- 2(13) of the CGST Act defines Audit as the examination of records, returns and other documents maintained or furnished by the registered person under the Act / rules made there under or under any other law for the time being in force to verify the correctness of turnover declared, taxes paid, refund claimed and input tax credit availed, and to assess his compliance with the provisions of the GST Act or the rules made thereunder.
*No audit is required for businesses with turnover less than INR 2 crore.
Types of GST Audit
There are 3 types of GST audits:… Read more
The 29th GST Council meeting chaired by Union finance minister Piyush Goyal was held at New Delhi on the 4th August, 2018. The meeting was aimed to address the issues of the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs).
Key decisions taken by council in the meeting
Incentivizing digital transactions
Federal indirect tax body the GST Council, keeping in mind the end goal of digitalization of the economy, enhancing tax compliance and elevating the collection of tax has decided to incentivize digital payments of tax. The council came up with plan to roll out a pilot project for refunding … Read more
The Central Government of India decided to conduct KYC drive to bring down the shell companies. Ministry would be conducting KYC of all the directors of the companies as a part of updating its registry.
MCA (Ministry of Corporate Affairs) has amended and inserted a new rule, Rule 12A (Directors KYC) vide the Companies (Appointment and Qualification of Director) Rules, Fourth Amendment Rules, 2018 . The rule came into effect on July 10, 2018.
In a registered company or new company registration, every director who has been allotted Director Identification Number (DIN) on or before 31st March, 2018 and … Read more